Positive and negative aspects
The positive aspect means the right to have a religious belief and the possibility to participate in a religious community. An individual may profess their faith freely alone or together with others publicly or privately by learning, fulfilling religious responsibilities, worshipping and performing religious rites. This aspect ensures any (oral or written, private or public) expression of faith, including praying and spreading of religious truths. The conduct denoting the fulfilment of religious rules (worship, rites, rituals, processions, wearing of religious dress, symbols, etc.) are also protected. The positive aspect of religious freedom includes external conduct significantly linked to an individual’s religious belief. On the contrary, the negative aspect of religious freedom means having the right not to have a religious belief and the possibility not to participate in a religious community. An individual is not obliged to have a faith or to state it, and may thus not be punished, discriminated or ignored. They may not be forced to express their belief, and have the right to decline participation in conduct which denotes the exercising of faith. The constitutional practice highlights that the negative aspect of religious freedom does not take precedence over the positive aspect.